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ERAVAP for Crude Oil

Crude Oil Vapor Pressure Testing at its Best

ERAVAP is the leading solution for high precision vapor pressure testing of live and dead crude oils according to ASTM D6377, IP481 and GOST 52340. Its unique cell design allows high shaking speeds ensuring unrivaled accuracy and short measuring times. Additionally, special V/L ratio measurements, including the TVP (True Vapor Pressure) method are available.

Standards

Correlation to

    ASTM D323
  • ASTM D1267
  • ASTM D2533
  • ASTM D2879
  • ASTM D4953
  • ASTM D5190
  • ASTM D5482

360° View

Crude Oil Vapor Pressure Testing

Vapor pressure of crude oil is a key parameter when planning the transportation of crudes through different climate zones. When performing crude oil vapor pressure measurements one has to bear the actual ambient conditions during transportation in mind. Is the crude transported in rail cars the headspace is approximately 5% where as a floating roof-top tank has nearly no headspace at all. This is important since the vapor to liquid ratio (V/L) and the storage temperature are highly influencing the vapor pressure of crude. This is especially true for live crude oil which still contains high amounts of volatile light ends.

rail_cars

V/L and Temperature Influences

The graph on the side shows the influence of the V/L ratio and the temperature on crude oil vapor pressure testing.

Measuring at the standard conditions of V/L = 4 and T = 37.8 °C the vapor pressure of the sample crude was approximately 40 kPa. At a V/L ratio of 0.02 found in rail cars, trucks or ships already gives a vapor pressure of around 100 kPa. Assuming that this storage tank stands in bright sunlight heating its content to a temperature of 60 °C the vapor pressure rises even further to 120 kPa.

The more light ends the transported crude contains the higher these effects will get. This highlights the importance to measure the crude’s vapor pressure under realistic conditions.

This graphs show the vapor pressure of crude oil for different temperatures and vapor to liquid ratios. Smaller V/L ratios and higher temperatures lead to higher vapor pressures.

High Performance Cell Shaking Technology

Crude oil properties like viscosity play an important role for vapor pressure measurements. As a higher viscosity significantly delays the formation of a pressure equilibrium, shaking of the measuring cell is mandatory for ASTM D6377. ERAVAP features a superior cell and shaker design, which allows for a shaking speed of 4.3 cycles per second (red curves), much higher compared to other vapor pressure testers on the market (green and yellow curves). This results not only in a faster measurement, but also significantly increases the accuracy and precision. Insufficient shaking or applying a static measuring time can lead to lower values with a bias of up to 10 kPa (1.5 psi).

  • Shakerspeed 600
  • Shakerspeed 1800

2-in-1: Vapor Pressure and Density

ERAVAP is the only vapor pressure tester on the market that can be equipped with the optional density meter module DENS4052 (patent pending), fully compliant to ASTM D4052 & ISO 12185 (r = 0.0001 g/cm³). This allows for a simultaneous density and vapor pressure measurement of crude oil. Additionally, the density module can be combined with a pressurized filling system (FPC/MPC), making it uniquely convenient for the testing of volatile crude oils.

  • DENS4052 module inside
  • ERAVAP with density module DENS4052

Pressurized Sampling Solutions

Measuring live crudes containing high amounts of volatiles requires the use of a pressurized sampling system, such as eralytics newly developed manual piston cylinder ERAVAP MPC (ASTM D8009) or standard FPC floating piston cylinders (ASTM D3700). If such crudes are measured from an open bottle, most volatiles will be lost, giving wrong VP results. For highly pressurized sampling eralytics special pressure regulator can be attached directly to ERAVAP.

  • Pressurized Sampling Solutions MPC and FPC
  • ERAVAP Manual Piston Cylinder

HVM - High Viscosity Module

eralytics‘ high viscosity module also allows the measurement of highly viscous samples. By heating the inlet, the outlet, and all connecting tubes as well as the inlet assembly up to 70°C, this optional HVM module makes ERAVAP the perfect analyzer for challenging samples like fuel oil or heavy crudes. ERAVAP Crude directly draws up the sample into the measurement chamber by a piston. Sample take-up of more viscous samples naturally takes a longer time until a viscosity where it becomes impractical. Heating up the sample prior to the introduction reduces the viscosity and the filling procedure speeds up.

 

Crude Oil

ASTM D6377 and CCQTA Recommendations

ASTM D6377 allows to use a wide range of different parameters for crude oil vapor pressure testing. Thus it can be tailored to fit the parameters for most conditions. Studies by the Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association (CCQTA), however, showed that the thermal expansion of the samples makes measurements at very low V/L ratios difficult. CCQTA prefers to analyze the V/L ratio curves at a specific temperature to judge the crude oil.

eralytics’ found a solution for the thermal expansion issue in ERAVAP crude and therefore can measure accurate crude oil vapor pressures at V/L = 0.02. Additionally, curve measurement programs at various V/L ratios are available, including the TVP method (True vapor pressure) which calculates the theoretical VPCR at V/L = 0. This makes ERAVAP crude the ideal choice for crude oil measurement applications.

ERAVAP crude oil measuring curve

Technical Specifications

Available Test Methods
ASTM D5188, D5191, D6377, D6378, D6897, EN13016-1, EN13016-2, EN13016-3 ,IP394, IP409, IP481, JIS K2258-2, SHT 0769, SHT 0794, SNT 2932, GOST 52340
freely programmable methods
EPA / CARB / US Military & NATO reference methods, TVP measurement
VP-V/L Speed TestTM – Combined T(V/L) and vapor pressure measurement
Correlation to...
ASTM D323, D1267, D2533, D4953, D5190, D5482, D2879 (optional low vapor pressure extension)
Fuel Specifications
ASTM D910, D1655, D1835, D4814, D6227, EN 228
Temperature Range
0 °C to 120 °C (32 °F to 248 °F) with Peltier technology. No external cooling is required.
-20 °C to 120 °C (-4 °F to 248 °F) with additional low temperature upgrade (EV01-COOL). External cooling is required.
Extrapolated range: -100 to 300 °C (-148 °F to 572 °F)
Temperature Stability
0.01 °C (0.02 °F)
Pressure Range
0 kPa to 1 000 kPa (0 psi to 145 psi)
Pressure Resolution
0.01 kPa (0.0014 psi)
Vapor / Liquid Ratio
Variable from 0.02/1 to 100/1
Single-, multi-point and curve measurements
Precision
Repeatability: r ≤ 0.15 kPa (0.022 psi) / Cyclopentane @ 37.8°C
Reproducibility: R ≤ 0.50 kPa (0.073 psi)
Available Extension Modules
EV01-COOL: Low temperature module (-20°C - 120°C / -4°F - 248°F)
EV01-VISC: High viscosity module (Heated inlet and outlet up to 70°C / 158°F)
EV01-VPL: Low vapor pressure module (r = 0.1 kPa; pressure resolution = 0.01 kPa)
Auto Sampler
Optional 10-position auto sampler – directly attached

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